They noted that when we adopt these character traits as treatments for the illnesses of our nafs, we get closer to embodying that innate Godly nature within and, as Abdelsalam pointed out, this is where we can access our higher purpose as human beings as khalifahtullah (vice-regent of God). 1) Non-Islamic view a) Not all thoughts,behaviour, feeling are inclusion in theory of human nature. volume 57, pages1731–1744(2018)Cite this article. These categories and the relationships discerned between them constituted a coherent model of the soul, which is presented diagrammatically in Fig. Throughout its life in the dunya, within the soul there exists a dynamic interplay of conflicting forces that affect the psychological state of the person and determine relative levels of alignment or misalignment with fitrah. Towards a systematic Qura’nic theory of personality. In referring to what is meant by the biblical as well as Qur’anic saying that humans were created in God’s form, Abdelsalam explained that “He has made us such that we can rule over ourselves and over … you know … with the same justice and wisdom.” Thus, by demonstrating these qualities sincerely and authentically, the notion is that we elevate our status and move upward on the trajectory toward nafs al mutmainah, this being the focus of human existence in the dunya and therefore the focus of an Islamic perspective of the psychology of the person. Delaney, H. D., & DiClemente, C. C. (2005). New York: Aldine. London: Ta-Ha Publishers. Abu-Raiya, H. (2012). Human psychology and Islam Introduction to Islamic Psychology The theoretical implication for this study is to understand the psychology of giving. Article Tarkki argued that, “Al-Ghazali is far more focused than any other author I know up to that point…in trying to figure out what the systematic bases for our various shortcomings, psychological shortcomings, would be… so the moral psychology aspect.” Many of the participants recognized the significant contribution that Islamic scholars like al-Ghazali offered to the field of moral psychology, particularly those who had an academic orientation to the study of Islamic philosophy and spirituality and the history of such thought. In E. Lyons & A. Coyle (Eds. The usefulness of this metaphor seemed to be that it exemplifies the idea that the purity or light that one is attempting to shine is not the person’s own, but that their soul can be a reflection of the divine light if cleaned and if the crust is removed that accumulates from the illusion of separation resulting from life in the dunya. ), Analysing qualitative data in psychology (2nd ed., pp. It’s just that they don’t call it psychology  We’re calling it psychology.” He then went on to say: “Islamic psychology is to do with those nafs, the jihad – the mujahada, the struggle over the nafs. Five participants were Islamic psychologists involved in research and/or clinical work; four were scholars in Islamic spirituality who were based in academic contexts; three were academic scholars in Islamic philosophy; three were non-academic Islamic religious scholars; three were traditional Islamic spirituality practitioners. The research question that underpinned the study was: what are the core principles and concepts regarding the conceptualization of the person from within an Islamic paradigm? Positive Thinking Of Islam And Psychology Of Human, Lahore, Pakistan. They substantiate the necessity of a unique framework grounded in an Islamic paradigm, as represented by this model and any theory of Islamic psychology of which it is a foundational constituent. Islam values the importance of good mental health and emotional wellbeing. Yaqoub specified that this stage/state is not necessarily characterized by evilness per se but that it is an “evilness premised on the state of individuation,” where the person is anchored in selfishness rather than in awareness of God and they are in a state of ghafla (forgetfulness of God). John (an academic scholar of Islamic spirituality) explained that as a result of the fitrah “there is a deeper part of ourselves that knows God and we are naturally drawn back to that knowledge,” or as Abdelsalam (a non-academic Islamic religious scholar) said, “we have this primordial disposition to want to know Him… and that’s how we are hardwired.” In other words, the idea is that we may be out of touch with our knowledge of and witnessing of God, but we always have the ability to get back to it. Animal and human psychology BF692-692.5 Psychology of sex. This process is represented by the red elements toward the bottom half of the model in Fig. When we discuss psychology, it comes the concept of spirit, self, heart and wisdom. Annual Review of Anthropology, 6(1), 227–254. Google Scholar. Haque, A., Khan, F., Keshavarzi, H., & Rothman, A. E. (2016). Sexual behavior BF697-697.5 Differential psychology. The analysis produced eight theoretical categories relevant to the research questions. While there were discrepancies as to how many stages exist, with five or even seven referenced, most participants agreed that the three main stages, as found in the Qur’an, are: nafs al ammarah (soul that inclines to evil), nafs al lawwama (self-reproaching soul), and nafs al mutmainah (soul at rest). Almost all of the participants who spoke in detail about the process of tahdhib al akhlaq identified al-Ghazali’s contribution as being most significant in that he developed a systematic framework for the treatments of these illnesses of the soul in his discussions on the muhlikat (vices) and munjiyat (virtues). Character BF839.8-885 Physiognomy. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13(6), 547–551. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. And one has to deal with them.” The jihad (struggle) then is not simply about fighting against the nafs; rather it involves a constructive response to the discovery of faults. the role of human soul, an integrated model was proposed. Most participants were between the ages of 26 to 34 (n=124) and 35 to 44 (n=103). Nov 10th 6. Most were authors of books or articles relevant to the research question but others were identified through personal recommendations and “snowballing”. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key … Gareth pointed out that while these scholars may have been influenced by Greek philosophy, they had a different orientation to the application and purpose of such knowledge. In other words Islam is an ideology (not just a religion) that is capable of answering every problematic question of mankind. So many ayat and ahadeeth talk about the “nafs” and the “heart” and really directly address the psychological components of our human experiences. In addressing the need to develop a comprehensive theory within an Islamic epistemological paradigm, Elmessiri (2006) asserted that the project must be a collaborative effort by a team of scholars who organize relevant thought and knowledge in a “creative attempt to apprehend the paradigms implicit in different Islamic texts and phenomena” (p. 68). The participants were quite diverse in terms of age. Jun 14th 5. This range of perspectives is necessary due to the variety of interpretations and definitions of Islam (Ahmed 2015; el-Zein 1977; Iqbal 2001), as well as the numerous branches of knowledge within the Islamic tradition that offer critical insight into and explanation of relevant teachings and concepts in regard to human psychology. Islamic Psychology as a foundation and basic concepts that became the initial foundation of psychotherapy with Islamic insight.Islam is a very great religion, which gives enlightenment to human beings in various aspects related to the universe, people and life. From Islamic perspective, whenever possible, explanation from Quran, Sunnah, Fiqh, Aqidah and Akhlaq perspectives were presented. Islam and Psychology Spiritual Beings on a Human Journey. The article discusses the connection of human psychology with Islam. The theoretical categories are a synthesis of different sources and different strains of Islamic scholarship and spiritual-religious knowledge. The Greek philosophy tradition of virtue ethics, as explored by the likes of Plato and Aristotle, and the connected field of moral psychology were influential in the development of discourse on human psychology by classical Islamic scholars (Iqbal 2013). As these labels or “codes” were developed, they were compared to other codes, and (possible) relationships were recorded in process notes called “memos.” Analytic observations and conceptual connections gave rise to the construction of “theoretical categories,” which represent thematic concepts that organize the data relative to the developing theory or model (Charmaz 2014). Participants came from nine countries across four continents. Elmessiri, A. M. The inclusion of these stages is significant in that they impart a dynamic element to the framework and indicate a natural progression of the soul toward growth. It can turn toward the lower impulses of the nafs and become further misaligned with fitrah by the influences of the dunya and shaytan, resulting in increased negative characteristics of the muhlikat and a state of ghafla. Therefore, participants explained that it generally happens within the stage of nafs al lawwama, when the person is able to have self-reproach. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key … However, this category builds upon the other three foundational categories and so we shall first outline them and illustrate them sparingly from the data set. These findings reflect and support those reported by Abu-Raiya (2012) and Keshavarzi and Haque (2013), particularly in the centrality of the elements of the soul (nafs, qalb, aql, ruh). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. PubMed 119–146). Islam as you may well already know, and if not, then soon you will witness, has the natural constructs of positive psychology embedded in the teachings of the Qur’an. Participants were sought who had academic or religious expertise related to Islamic conceptions of human psychology and who could therefore act as “key informants,” sharing their own views and commenting from their informed positions on the views of others in their field (Gilchrist 1992). Islam lays stress on doing good deeds and avoiding of committing sins. The constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology takes a relativist position, acknowledging the constructed nature of human experience and the multiplicity of possible standpoints of both participants and researchers. 1. Classic; Flipcard; Magazine; Mosaic; Sidebar; Snapshot; Timeslide; Recent; Date; Label; Author; OCD Buddy Project. Google Scholar. Allah has blessed us with guidance in all facets of our lives, including that of our own souls and psyches. Payne, S. (2016). Charmaz, K. (2014). He said: “So it is not just the study of psychology but the process of cleansing, the process of cleaning, making the mirror shine. Psychology from Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists Classic; Flipcard; Magazine; Mosaic; Sidebar; Snapshot; Timeslide; Recent; Date; Label; Author; OCD Buddy Project. The phenomenological approach in Islamic studies: An overview of a Western attempt to understand Islam. 1 later in this paper. Fitrah: Islamic concept of human nature. The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam. The approach enables new theoretical insights to be developed directly from a systematic interrogation of data and is particularly useful in areas where existing theory is incomplete, inappropriate or entirely absent (Charmaz 2014; Payne 2016). Veröffentlichen für Autorinnen und Autoren, Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK), Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK). of human psychology and in studying the Islamic world, taking into considera tion cultural, historical, and social factors. However, the specific dynamics of how these aspects interrelate and interact with each other were under-developed in Keshavarzi and Haque’s (2013) work. progress of humanity; and I am afraid that he is under some illusion in regard to the Turks, who are still the leaders of Islam, and are regarded by other Muslims as their future liberators. This process is represented by the blue elements toward the top half of the model in Fig. That’s his main focus, I think that’s important.”. In his Farewell Sermon, Muhammad repudiated the discrimination based on race and color. So, in other words, you know, the whole idea of purification takes one to the highest level – the nafs al mutmainah or the tranquil, serene soul. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. The article discusses the connection of human psychology with Islam. However important, the “mind” orintellect, with its practical and theoretical aspects, is only part ofthe falâsifa's “science of thesoul.” Their main sources are found in three Aristoteliantreatises: On the Soul (De anima), On Sense and Sensibilia(De Sensu et Sensibili), and On Memory and Recollection(De Memoria et Remini… Thus, as both Rahim (an Islamic psychologist) and Abdelsalam specifically pointed out, any conception of an Islamic psychology would necessarily involve this purification process, and it would be absurd to envisage a study of psychology without it. In Islamic psychology, the spiritual component of an individual is crucial to the nature of a human being and is distinct from an individual‟s psychological and biological components. The qalb was explained by participants to be the spiritual center of the human being and a pivotal part of what determines the relative state of the soul. The scientifically rich Hellenistic culture to which Islam was heir is evident in the work of Abû Yûsuf Ya‘qûb ibn Ishâq al-Kindî (d. c.870) and Abû Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ibn Yahya al-Râzî (865-925 or 932). The teachings of Islamic psychology regarding human nature, sin, and salvation may at times seem similar to the Biblical Christian worldview, but in reality they stand in very sharp distinction from it. ), Doing qualitative research: Research methods for primary care (pp. This issue has been taken into hand to provide an insight from Islamic perspective for a broad continuum of personality development or what in contemporary era is called human psychology. Abu-Raiya (2012) presented a “systematic Qur’anic theory of personality” which also outlines a framework of the psychological nature of the human being around these four aspects but adds the three developmental stages as found in the Qur’an: nafs al ammarah bil su (soul that inclines to evil), nafs al lawwama (self-reproaching soul), and nafs al mutmainah (soul at rest). Ihya’’ulum al-din: The revival of the religious sciences. their Islamic knowledge was guided by Divine injunctions and thus believed to be free from human errors. Skinner, R. (2010). While all eight of the categories were noteworthy, four reflect more foundational aspects of the emergent model, namely “Nature of the soul,” “Structure of the soul,” “Stages of the soul,” and “Development of the soul” (see Table 1). Another idea that Abdelsalam presented was that an Islamic perspective would not have any use for the study of the soul without a direct link to treatment. Participants were very diverse in their attitudes towards the Lakers and Kobe. Physical & Social Hijab for both genders Ahlulbayt Live. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. In the data excerpts that are used to illustrate the model in the next section, pseudonyms have been assigned to participants and their status is indicated when their pseudonym is first mentioned; dots indicate pauses in speech and empty square brackets indicate where material has been edited/excised. Human psychology and Islam Introduction to Islamic Psychology Due to space constraints, we will elaborate in detail the category entitled “Development of the soul” as it has greatest relevance to applications of an Islamic psychology, particularly in Islamic psychotherapies. He then pointed out that while the terms ilm an nafs (knowledge of the soul) or fiqh an nafs (deep knowledge of the soul)—as Yahya said al-Ghazali used—are more about the study of the structure of the soul, tazkiyat an nafs (purification of the soul) was traditionally viewed as a practical way of living and is more about putting that knowledge into application, or the process of shining the mirror. Islamic Psychology (Ilm Ul Nafs) is the study of the “self” (nafs) or the “psyche” from an Islamic Perspective with concepts that are not included in western forms of studying the field i.e the unseen influences, the impact of destiny, the sway of the shaytaan and the inclusion of the soul. Sufism is at its very core the study and practice of the Psychology of the Soul, and well within the understanding of the average "Westerner", Muslim or Sufi Master. 1, from the ruh upwards. The concepts that make up the categories reflect the participants’ reliance on tafsir (exegesis) of the Qur’an and hadith in their interview responses, drawing upon writings of both modern and early scholars of Islamic theology and philosophy. Islam as you may well already know, and if not, then soon you will witness, has the natural constructs of positive psychology embedded in the teachings of the Qur’an. Furthermore, the idea that this center of consciousness within the human being is inherently connected and can be consciously connected to a primordial, divine consciousness is absent from Western, secular theories of human nature. In reference to the Western model, Hamit said, “It’s relativistic…there’s all ‘small ts,’ there’s no ‘big T’. Today, Islam is the second largest religion in the world, second only to Christianity by numbers, and comprises about one fifth of the world’s population. In reference to this Cesar said, “the nafs has an ability to kind of cover up the ruh so that really with the ruh it’s about polishing and clearing and letting the light, letting the ruh itself shine.”. Drawing on scholarly writings as well as popular literature on self-healing, El Shakry provides the first in-depth examination of psychoanalysis in Egypt and reveals how a new science of psychology—or “science of the soul,” as it came to be called—was inextricably linked to Islam and mysticism. Almost all participants used this metaphor of shining a mirror in reference to doing work on the soul to clean the heart and uncover the fitrah. This would constitute a foundation for various forms of applied psychology such as Islamic psychotherapies. Psychology in Islam is used in everyday practices but under different guises, such as spiritualism. It opens opportunities for discussion and cooperation between Western and Muslim psychologists, thus enhancing global understanding and cooperation. It is the soul.” In discussing the structure of the soul, most participants referenced the four main aspects (nafs, qalb, aql, and ruh) presented in al-Ghazali’s twelfth century work the ihya ilumidin (The Revival of the Religious Sciences, 2015) which are used to describe different functions or qualities of the one integral soul. Islam & Human Psychology Part 1 Ahlulbayt Live. While there is a dearth of literature and research on the psyche, the self or the soul within the realm of Islam and psychology (Haque et al. As a religion, Islam does not recognize the racial discrimination among people. Participants described the qalb as having the ability to turn either toward the dunya and shaytan via the nafs or toward Allah via the higher aspect of the soul, and, as John and Cesar (academic scholars of Islamic spirituality) pointed out, the root of the Arabic word means “to turn.” A unique feature of the qalb that was reported is that it is the place where consciousness resides. Data were engaged with through an initial process of “open coding” which involves identifying and labeling units of transcript text, for example, a word, phrase, sentence or larger section of text (Payne 2016). The paper had referred to both psychology and Islamic psychology’s secondary sources. Eighteen people agreed to participate: 17 men and one woman who ranged in age from 39 to 89 years. Islamic Psychology Helping others is very much encouraged in Islam and the work of therapist or counsellor is very beneficial to the whole society. The evolving Islam and psychology movement. In B. F. Crabtree & W. L. Miller (Eds. Outlining a psychotherapy model for enhancing Muslim mental health within an Islamic context. Self BF698-698.9 Personality BF699-711 Genetic psychology BF712-724.85 Developmental psychology Including infant psychology, child psychology, adolescence, adulthood BF725-727 Class psychology BF795-839 Temperament. An Islamic approach to psychology and mental health. Participants described the muhlikat as natural tendencies within the nafs of the human being which pull a person toward the lower part of the self and a downward trajectory in the realm of dunya and the forces of shaytan. Psychology plays a vital role in human personality. In addition to a more positive view of human nature in the sense of the soul being innately pure, the Islamic model of the soul presented in this study possesses several features that distinguish it from most secular Western models of human nature. The understanding of human nature and the relative conception of structural aspects that make up the human psyche or “soul” determine much of how we make sense of behavior and motivation and are fundamental to the philosophical underpinnings of theoretical approaches to psychology and psychotherapy (Coon and Mitterer 2012). This is explained below. Key informant interviews. Journal of Religion and Health Kaplick, P. M., & Skinner, R. (2017). To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. 2016). Keshavarzi, H., & Haque, A. Islam discusses these aspects of human personality and their role in life in Holy Quran. A useful next step in deepening the model and advancing those endeavours would be to engage analytically with relevant classical and modern Islamic texts, including those invoked by participants in the present study, and with the views and experiences of practitioners of versions of Islamic psychotherapy and of psychotherapy with Muslim clients. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (1996). Id is equal to Nafsi Ammar. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(3), 230–249. His Qur’anic theory of personality follows some of the a priori assumptions of Freudian theory and “holds a largely negative view of human nature” (p. 231), which more closely resembles a Christian paradigm of human nature (Niebuhr 2004). One important aspect of Islam is that it regards human beings as equal children of Adam. The International Association of Islamic Psychology (IAIP) is a professional body which aims to set and maintain a high standard of research and practice in this specialized field. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 15(3), 217–233. Article 65% were male (n=221) and 35% were female (n=119). Islam itself is deeply interested in human psychology. This more fundamental process was commonly referred to as jihad an nafs (struggle of the soul) and, although tazkiyat an nafs could be included in this term, jihad an nafs was conceived to be more generally referring to work on the soul at any level. Introduction Although Islam and secularism are obviously opposite concepts, they might be some common issues to consider them as a similar. To do so requires that we understand at a foundational level how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. Iqbal, M. (2013). It was understood that our relative engagement with and success in that struggle determines the state of our soul and which of the stages we are in at any given time. J Relig Health 57, 1731–1744 (2018). Fifteen interviews were then conducted in person and three by video conference. Many participants related that having knowledge of God is a fundamental feature of the nature of the human soul from an Islamic perspective. In reflecting on the self, as John said, “It’s thought that one would find out where one’s weaknesses lie. And although the "work" of self-realization is by no means the exclusive property of Sufism, Islam or any other "way", it is interesting that Sufism pays its focused attention to the problem of resolving the "Human Situation". This process is represented by the purple elements in the middle of the model in Fig. In this study, saturation was reached just before the eighteenth participant’s transcript was analyzed, as data collected from interviews at this point were only producing recurring codes and categories. They provided insights into the psychology of Islam with respect to pathology, health, human behavior, and spirituality, along with informing a guiding framework for psychological intervention within an Islamic context. He began with Aristotle's idea that humans possessed three types of soul, the vegetative, animal and rational psyches. Constructing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. Yaqoub (a non-academic Islamic religious scholar) explained “the fitrah is an allusion to the original imprint of this tawhid [divine unity].” Participants reported that after conception a process of corruption begins, as the person makes their way through the trials of the dunya (temporal world) which begins to distance them from and cover over their pure nature. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key informants with relevant academic or religious expertise. Bitte verwenden Sie diesen Link, um diese Publikation zu zitieren, oder auf sie als Internetquelle zu verweisen: [Journal:] Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS) [ISSN:] 2309-8619 [Volume:] 9 [Year:] 2015 [Issue:] 3 [Pages:] 1012-1016. We offer a four-year full-time programme of studies leading to the Bachelor of Human Sciences with Honours in Psychology, and postgraduate degrees at the Master and Ph.D. levels. It is inappropriate to adopt the theoretical orientations that underpin contemporary Western psychology because most of these have been influenced by concepts of human nature other than those derived from Islam (Delaney and DiClemente 2005). Ramadan Diet Advice. However, according to several participants, this is a higher spiritual state than most people will achieve in life, closer to the stage of nafs al mutmainah. Several participants talked about that which is of relevance to the majority of people as they struggle to simply chip away at the crust covering the mirror rather than polishing an already mostly uncovered reflection. Forty individuals were ultimately identified and were invited to take part. As with the Ancient Greek psychology, it is important to remember that the Muslim scholars did not have a specific term for psychology and did not identify themselves as psychologists. Grounded theory. While a lot is written about their works, not much is He focuses on what your soul is like now, in its kind of general state – what most people experience.
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