At that time the US Navy built a 2.2 MW deuterium fluoride chemical laser called MIRACL. Dynamitron's accelerating column is within a vessel filled with, Axon Membranes and Synapses - A Role of Lipid Bilayer Structure in Nerve Signals, Industrial Applications of Lasers (Second Edition), (From B. In this section, we will consider a few representative examples to show the range of the laser-based isotope separation techniques. A second example illustrates the use of photopredissociation to separate bromine isotopes. Nitrogen trifluoride and sulfur hexafluoride Although solar power doesn't produce greenhouse gases while in use, the one's it does release during production are important, according to the Voice of San Diego. Sulfur hexafluoride Safety Data Sheet P-4657 This SDS conforms to U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication. Such behavior is manifested not just by S(1s), S(2s) and S(2p) excitations, but also F(1s) transitions. The silicon is then etched using, Several other versions of cascade generators got special names. Such conformational effects would block the phase transition proposed above to be involved in the synaptic transmission and in the action potential propagation. General anaesthetic agents have their main effect on the central nervous system and block the sensory nerve impulses coming from peripheral nerves. The energy deposited by the electron is then distributed over all the nuclei in a chaotic long-lived anion state before the nuclear framework can oscillate back to its initial configuration. sulfur hexafluoride is found in the exhaust streams at low concentrations under 1%, its partial pressure driving force through the membrane is minimal, and conversely, its recovery in the non-permeate stream of the membrane is very high. 28. Several other versions of cascade generators got special names. The two next deeper orbitals, 4t1u and 5a1g, involve primarily combinations of F(2p) and S(3s) orbitals. 26. Chemical scavenging of the 81Br then occurred via, yielding a product that could be chemically separated. Which of the following is true about the composition of ionic compounds? Then, these molecules are photodissociated by multiple photon absorption from an infrared laser beam. Check for and remove any contact lenses. Experimental device Experimental researches in sulfur hexafluoride de Use for industrial production of enriched isotopic species remains in the future, except for the case of uranium, for which an AVLIS process has been transferred to commercial development. Oxygen is added to react with sulfur. The interpretation of the data from such studies requires the diffusion coefficient of SF 6 (D SF6), which has not previously been measured. (1992) from IP–29.5eV, stated to be accurate to ≤3%, solidify an important spectral region. One can regard the selected atoms as simply being pushed to the side, out of the atomic beam, by the momentum transfer from the light. Thus SF6 breakers can interrupt much larger currents. A whole series of cascade accelerators of ELU type, similar to Dynamitron, is produced by the G.I. After the SF6 etch, the structure is coated with a passivation layer using octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8). Sulfur hexafluoride is an example of a _____. Which of the following is true about the composition of ionic compounds? C They are composed of cations only. But laser processes have not yet made the transition to routine industrial chemical processing. If adverse effects occur, remove to uncontaminated area. The sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) circuit breaker gives noiseless operation due it’s The examples of chemical processing and isotope separation procedures we have given represent only a small number of the many photochemical applications of lasers that have been studied. Many groups have employed infrared laser photodissociation to separate tritium from both light water and heavy water. SF6 is also an excellent example of how the DEA cross section is strongly dependent upon temperature. The unselected 34SF6 does not react and progressively becomes a larger component in the residual material. a. monatomic ion b. polyatomic ion c. binary compound d. polyatomic compound c What is the ending for the names of all binary compounds, both ionic and molecular? 4.7). The solutes chosen for high-pressure solubility measurements have been the anthraquinone derivatives, dispersion dyestuffs, and textile colorants 1,4-diamino-2-methoxyanthraquinone (Disperse Red 11, abbreviated DR11), 1-amino-4-methoxy-2-phenoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (Disperse Red 60, DR60) as well eight members of the 1,4-bis-(alkylamino)-9,10-anthraquinone series where “alkyl” is varying from methyl (Solvent Blue 78, AQ01) over ethyl (Solvent Blue 59, AQ02), propyl (AQ03), 1-methylethyl or isopropyl (Solvent Blue 36, AQiso03), butyl (Solvent Blue 35, AQ04), pentyl (Solvent Blue 14, AQ05), octyl (AQ08) to finally octadecyl (AQ18), as well β-carotene (β,β-carotene). Hydrogen, which is injected into the tube, reacts with fluoride, and generates the hydrogen fluoride HF* in vibrationally excited states. Established as a proprietorship company, OM SPECIALITY GASES is known as the foremost distributor of a high-quality range of Sulfur Hexafluoride, Carbon Monoxide Gas, Butane Offered Sulfur Hexafluoride, Carbon Monoxide Gas, Butane are well-known for the features like long working life, high functionality, and low maintenance. ). Analysis of sulfur composition of sulfate collected on filters during the HASP Airstream project from June 1973 yield a value of δ 34 S ~ 6.6 ‰, which is in qualitative agreement with the results reported by Castleman et al. Such experiments also provide new insights into fragmentation dynamics and the differences between photon- and electron-induced processes, for example, while DEA of CF3I proceeds from the same initial parent state as the corresponding photolysis process, in contrast to photolysis, which leads nearly exclusively to the (2)P(1/2) excited state of iodine, electron-induced dissociation leads predominantly to the (2)P(3/2) ground state. 26; Christophorou and Olthoff, 2001). The fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the two rubidium isotopes were being selectively photoionized. The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula. SF6 is inert, with a moderate EA of 1.03±0.05eV (Eisfeld, 2011; ?Troe et al., 2012; Viggiano et al., 2007), and thermal electron attachment at 300 K is very efficient and almost entirely associative, while at temperatures above 500 K branching to dissociative attachment becomes significant. In most cases, only relatively small amounts of enriched material are required. SF2 is a closed-shell species, but is highly reactive; like SF6 and SF4, it has a moderate EA (2.285±0.006eV). Give artificial respiration if not breathing. High concentration of 34S al lows tracing the change of isotope composition at con version of sulfur containing compounds by universal massspectrometer having low mass resolution. Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. The photoelectron spectrum corresponding to (2T1u) has a well-resolved vibrational progression, suggesting electron removal from a bonding orbital, with VIP = 22.53 eV, while that for the (2A1g) state (VIP = 26.82 eV) has weak vibrational structure, though described as mostly bonding with some anti-bonding character (Weigold et al., 1991). Which of the following is true about the composition of ionic compounds? The reactions used most often are based on the generation of excited HF* and DF* molecules (Table 4.1). Sulphur difluoride sulphide: SSF 2. As the laser frequency was scanned successively over the absorption lines of 85Rb and 87Rb, the composition of the ion current, as monitored by laser-induced fluorescence, changed to correspond to the selected isotope. In connection with our work on curvature and periodicity in lipid-water systems and in membranes, it was natural to examine the effect of general anaesthetic agents on aqueous phase behaviour of lipids, cf. A simple model for the influence of membrane curvature on the conformation of an ion channel is shown in figure 13.6.1. b. of Application with search report - European Patent Office. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. (1991) and Yang et al. Sulfur hexafluoride is an example of a ____. Recommended or suggested cross sections for the formation of anions to electron impact on SF6 (Christophorou and Olthoff, 2001). When power equipment works under normal conditions, SF 6 is quite stable; however, partial discharges (PDs) caused by GIS insulation defects can lead to SF 6 decomposing into some low-fluorine sulfides [  , … IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND OF THE COMPANY Product name: Sulfur Hexafluoride Chemical formula: SF6 Known uses: Not known Company: Axcel Gases Head Office: 1K/49, NIT, Faridabad, 121001, India Email: email@example.com Works: Fig. The 2eg orbital is described as F(2s) non-bonding, with a binding energy of ∼39.5eV, while 3t1u has some F(2s) + S(3p) bonding character (VIP ∼ 41.0eV) and 4a1g is found to have F(2s) (some F2(p)) +S(3s) bonding character, and VIP = 44.1eV. Sulfur hexafluoride is the classic molecule for electron attachment studies and has been labeled an “electron sponge” since it absorbs free electrons. Dynamitron's accelerating column is within a vessel filled with sulfur hexafluoride insulating gas under high pressure. Convert grams Sulfur Hexafluoride to moles or moles Sulfur Hexafluoride to grams. The optimum separation process will vary from one element to another. Abstract: Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Disulphur decafluoride: S 2 F 10. Sulphur tetrachloride: SCl 4. Their effect can thus be reversed by hydrostatic pressure (although only partly) like effects of general anaesthetic agents, indicating some influence on phase transitions in the neuron bilayer. 13 and 16 provide further information, for example, on product specification and quality, of these chemicals. A common feature is their lipophilic character. Local anaesthetic activity is provided by a group of molecules which are weak bases (thus cationic) and contain an aromatic group. Ray Weiss, a professor of geochemistry at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, told the Voice of San Diego, that some solar panel production releases nitrogen trifluoride, which is 17,000 times … Although many examples of laser isotope separation have been demonstrated, this technology remains largely experimental. The laser action in chemical lasers occurs between vibrational levels. Another isotope separation procedure that has been extensively studied is the separation of tritium, 3H, from both light water and heavy water. The cost of isotopically pure materials has been high. Fig. Chem. a. monatomic ion b. polyatomic ion c. binary compound d. polyatomic compound. Completing the second tier are the orbitals 2eg,3t1u and 4a1g, which have compositions dominated by F(2s). The well known pressure reversal of the anaesthetic effect can be explained by favouring of the planar (Lα-type) conformation on behalf of the periodically curved bilayer. Enrichment from a natural abundance of 50 percent 81Br to an abundance around 80 percent was demonstrated. When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. The original ratio 34 S/ 32 S was around 0.044. Sulfur Hexafluoride Section 4. SF6 is a combination of sulfur and fluorine its first synthesis was realized in 1900 by French researchers of the Pharmaceutical Faculty of Paris. Convert grams Sulfur Hexafluoride to moles or moles Sulfur Hexafluoride to grams, Molecular weight calculation: The main advantage of the electrical circuit used in Dynamitron is to allow a much higher beam current to be transported than a typical the Cockcroft–Walton style accelerator. The observed decrease in the SFn attachment rate coefficients with n is a combination of the increased IVR time scale, the shift of the capture cross sections to electron energies less populated at 300–600 K, and, significantly, the derived increasing nuclear barriers, as well as an increasing importance of electron autodetachment in SF4 and SF2 at higher temperatures. Molecules containing hydrogen or deuterium atoms do not absorb. Treat symptomatically. Sten Andersson, ... Michael Jacob, in Biomathematics, 1999. For the purposes of accurate sum-rule analysis, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) presents some problems. A range of electronic accelerators of constant action such as ELU creates electron beams in the energy range from 0.2 to 2.5 MeV and beam current up to 200 mA. The symmetric v1 mode strongly interacts with the spherically symmetric charge distribution due to the s-wave electron. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) is widely employed as an insulating medium in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) because of its outstanding insulating and arc-extinguishing performance [, , , , ]. These materials may be listed for local “Right-to-Know” compliance and for other reasons. COMPOSITION CONTAINING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE AND OXYGEN, FOR INCREASING OR DECREASING THE BODY TEMPERATURE OF A PATIENT (PAT - EP1089743) FERRIGNO Massimo THE BRIGHAM AND WOMEN'S HOSPITAL, INC. Patent: Publ. Abstract. When chloroform, ethyl ether or halothane were added to an aqueous dispersion of a phospholipid Lα-phase (forming liposomes or vesicles), the bilayers fused and formed a cubic phase. SF6 was first produced on a commercial scale in 1948 and some 2000 TG of SF6 were being produced annually in the early years of the 21st century. a. 27. It is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, and non-flammable, and is soluble in … Separation of isotopes of elements other than uranium is also important for providing isotopically enriched materials for medicine, research, and industry. Their business is located in situated at … The original ratio 34S/32S was around 0.044. This has been explained by the changed spin state of the negative ion, allowing an adiabatic dissociation through a conical intersection, a path that is efficiently repressed by the required spin flip in the photolysis process (Ómarsson et al., 2014b). According to a commemorative article published a century later, it was made by burning sulfur in fluorine and was one of the most interesting compounds he produced ‘because of its composition and chemical inertness’ – the fact that it didn’t react with anything. Figure 21-7. We use the most common isotopes. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is the most potent greenhouse gas regulated under the Kyoto Protocol, with a high global warming potential. It was used for the first time as insulating material, In the United States about 1935. The presence of possible scrambling reactions, such as. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY Stability and reactivity: Thermal decomposition yields toxic products which can be corrosive in the presence of moisture. Sulphur hexafluoride: SF 6. Absorption spectra of 34SF6 and 32SF6 in the infrared near 10.6 μm. Compared to the MACE process which is relatively low cost as it is a solution-based process, Bosch etching is done using a DRIE tool. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. Fifty rats exposed to an atmosphere consisting of 80% sulfur hexafluoride and 20% oxygen for 16 to 25 hours exhibited no effects from exposure. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Praxair, Inc. 10 Riverview Drive Danbury, CT 06810-6268 - USA Trisulphur dichloride: S 3 Cl 2. Thus, the company IBA Industrial (formerly Radiation Dynamics Incorporated) in the 1960s developed accelerator, called “Dynamitron,” that can accelerate either electrons or positive ions. By cycling between etch and passivation processes, an array of high aspect ratio silicon wires can be fabricated. Laser techniques could reduce costs considerably. But in some cases, large-scale separation is necessary. common chemical compounds. Another, more phenomenological, approach to electron attachment to SF6 is based on the Vogt and Wannier (1954) model for capture of a charged particle into a polarization well (Fabrikant and Hotop, 2001). Zimkina and collaborators have provided several of these measurements, in the vicinity of the S(2s), S(2p), S(1s) and F(1s) edges (Zimkina and Fomikov, 1967; Zimkina and Vinogradov, 1971; Vinogradov and Zimkina, 1972). The usual procedure has been to use halogenated hydrocarbons (like CF3H) as working molecules. The fraction of tritium in the original mixture was depleted, whereas the deuterium was not depleted. Electron escape from the central atom is impeded by a cage of electronegative atoms. If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. High-energy laser weapon projects date back to the 1970s. The gas flows quickly through the resonator cavity, perpendicular to the axis (Fig. This scalloping can be removed by heat treating the silicon wires in hydrogen gas or using multiple oxidation and stripping processes to smooth the silicon wire sidewall. The use of laser separation of uranium isotopes, which has been transferred from government laboratories to industry, may provide one of the first examples. The tandem machine can produce ion beams with energies in the range from 400 keV to 24 MeV of almost all elements of the periodic system with the current in the μA area. Unfortunately, comparison with other sources, where possible, indicates that the cross sections of Zimkina and collaborators are lower by 15–20%. It has a role as an ultrasound contrast agent and a member of … This leads to it having excellent dielectric properties; indeed the dielectric strength of sulfur hexafluoride gas is about 2.5 times more than that of air. These molecules inhibit the transmission of the nerve signal at the synapses. These lasers show promise for use as powerful tools for dismantling obsolete nuclear weapon production facilities and nuclear-power reactors. Sulphur tetrafluoride: SF 4. Theoretical work on electron attachment to SF6 is very scarce due to complexity of inclusion of many vibrational degrees of freedom involved in the attachment process. (1 point) A monatomic ion B polyatomic ion C binary compound D polyatomic … Chito E. Kendrick, Joan M. Redwing, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, 2016. Completely ab initio description of this process is very challenging, but it can be described semiempirically by the multichannel effective range theory with complex boundary conditions (Fabrikant et al., 2005). However, very high resolution electron beams produced using photoionization sources (e.g., the LPA method of Hotop and coworkers) have more clearly defined the electron attachment cross section (Fig. Schneider, in Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media, 2004. There is additional practical interest in these unstable species for modeling plasma processing using sulfur fluoride gases, analogous to that for the fluorocarbon gases (Baluja & Tossell, 2004). Sulphur dichloride: SCl 2. Halina Abramczyk, in Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy, 2005. There is however, a considerable variation in the magnitude of the effect, although the evidence tends to suggest that most of these isolated gas species provide a more favourable insulating medium than dry air, with the relatively inert gases of N2, He and SF6 generally giving the highest voltage hold-off characteristics. A separation of 1014 atoms per second was demonstrated, enriched by a factor about three over the natural abundance. It was detected by a mass spectrometer. They work by specific blocking of the sodium channels, and they have also some nonspecific effect on the lipid bilayer. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an important gas for plasma etching processes in the semiconductor industry. The product of those functions (solid curves) is the calculated capture probability used in the kinetic modeling excluding vibrational excitation effects. Deuterium is used in the form of heavy water as a moderator to slow fission neutrons in reactors. Sulfur hexafluoride side effects Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives, skin redness, rash; warmth, numbness, or tingly feeling; trouble breathing, tight feeling in your throat; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. The process requires a metal hard mask or silicon mask to be patterned to represent the size and placement of the wires. Skin contact Contact with liquid may cause cold burns/frostbite. Today methoxyflurane and halothane dominate. Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 1040 Geochemistry: Isotopic composition/ ... at 575 C for 12 hours to produce sulfur hexafluoride. The molecular orbitals in the upper tier comprise the atomic core orbitals The 2t1u orbital consists of S(2p3/2) (IP = 180.27 eV) and S(2p1/2) (IP = 181.48 eV) (Hudson et al., 1993), while 3a1g is S(2s), with IP = 244.7 eV (Keshi-Rahkonen, 1976). Sulfur Hexafluoride 18.02.2008 MSDS No. (1974). This has led to DEA properties of many new halogen-containing compounds being explored, for example, CF3I (Marienfeld et al., 2006b; Ómarsson et al., 2014b). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Key properties of the gas are that it is extremely chemically stable and has a relatively high density. 1. It is an essential element in all living things and is in the organic molecules of all fossil fuels. A collimated beam of rubidium atoms was irradiated by a tunable Ti:sapphire laser. Date of issue: 01/01/1979 Revision date: 11/23/2016 Supersedes: 01/28/2015 The ratio increases by a factor around 33 after 5000 pulses. The relevant absorption spectra of 32SF6 and 34SF6 are shown in Figure 21-6. The reaction mechanisms of the sulfur hexafluoride on BTO thin films and the effects of annealing treatment are verified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which confirms the accumulation of reaction products on the etched surface due to the low volatility of the reaction products, such as Ba and Ti fluorides, and these residues could be completely removed by the post-annealing … It should be noted that due to the difficulty in producing high-intensity, very low energy (< 1 eV) electron beams the modern ion imaging methods (VSI/VMI) have yet to be used to explore such complex EA and DEA dynamics in SF6 or any vibrationally excited target. 1. A detailed discussion was presented first by Braun et al. They demonstrated a direct relation between the anaesthetic potency (the critical concentration in order to reach an anaesthetic state) and the partition coefficient between olive oil and water. Table 4.1 shows the most typical chemical reactions utilized in chemical lasers. It has yielded substantial new information about reaction kinetics and the dynamics of chemical reactions. Thus, the company IBA Industrial (formerly Radiation Dynamics Incorporated) in the 1960s developed accelerator, called “Dynamitron,” that can accelerate either electrons or positive ions. (1 point) A They are composed of anions and cations. produced their own sum-rule analysis. This barrier effectively creates a double well potential – an inner well, with favorable transition probabilities to low-lying, unoccupied valence states, and an outer well, with weak transition probabilities to Rydberg states. Air Liquide offers a wide range of services to try and meet each customer's needs. A year later, James Simpson in Glasgow started to use chloroform in childbirth. The need to evaluate DEA cross sections, rate coefficients, and products for many halogenated compounds will therefore continue to be important for the development of next-generation technologies. The theory also produces cross sections for vibrational excitation of the Raman-active v1 mode and the infrared-active v3 mode, in a good agreement with experiments. The large excess energy in the mutual neutralization results in significant fragmentation of the neutral products (i.e., SF6−+Ar+ yields in varying quantities SFn(n=2–6)), and, at higher initial electron densities, each of the neutral fragments will attach electrons. Many translated example sentences containing "sulfur hexafluoride" – Japanese-English dictionary and search engine for Japanese translations. Thus, the total energy can be twice as large as in a single stage of the Cockcroft–Walton generator. Disulphur diiodide: S 2 I 2. The present invention … Sulfur hexafluoride has been widely used in field studies and laboratory experiments to develop a relationship between gas transfer and wind speed. It was explained in chapter 8 how the formation of a periodically curved bilayer is related to the existence of a high inner packing pressure in the hydrocarbon chain core. molar mass and molecular weight, Convert grams Sulfur Hexafluoride to moles. The VENDAMS measurements only reflect associative attachment to SF2− (the observable product of dissociative attachment, F−, is ∼0.3eV endothermic and any F− produced would be swamped by other sources). of a chemical compound, More information on In military lasers, the gas flows with supersonic velocity, in contrast to commercially available lasers in which the velocity is much smaller than the velocity of the sound. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom (or group of atoms) in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by 100. He ions, for example, are known to be adsorbed more efficiently than Ar ions [70,71], and it has been suggested  that this could offer an explanation of why He gas gives a higher breakdown voltage than argon. The following substances have become involved into this project: Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), fluoroform (CHF3), chlorotrifluoromethane (CClF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) have been used as solvents. Figure 21-7 shows results for the composition of the starting material and for the residual SF 6 after 2000 and after 5000 pulses. SF6 has therefore been used as an insulating material in electrical systems, as a circuit breaker, in high voltage switch gear and as an arc-quenching medium. -ide b. The AVLIS process, described previously with reference to uranium isotope separation, is also relevant for the separation of isotopes of many other elements. In doing so higher precision, purity, traceability, … ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049250X17300034, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123964823000053, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780120918416500062, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444515742500055, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124371750500063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080878415000484, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444639790000185, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444516626500058, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444502735500380, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780125839617500235, Recent Progress in Dissociative Electron Attachment, Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Fabrikant et al., 2005; Gerchikov and Gribakin, 2008, Marienfeld et al., 2006b; Ómarsson et al., 2014b, Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Christophorou & Olthoff, 2000; Troe et al., 2007, 2009, 2011, Babcock & Strelt, 1982; Miller et al., 1994, Atomic and Molecular Photoabsorption, Volume 1. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk (Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Science). The resulting relative anion abundances contain information on the kinetics of those electron attachments. (1 point) A They are composed of anions and cations. There are few, if any, examples of laser processes with practical economic importance. This requires coupling of the electron motion with nuclear motion. One example is the separation of deuterium (2H) from the much more abundant light hydrogen (1H). Sulfur hexafluoride is considered to be chemically and physiologically inert in its pure state. Spatial separation of the desired isotope is achieved when the number N of absorbed photons is such that Nhvc is larger than the transverse momentum spread of the atomic beam.
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