S Giritch Variation and heritability estimates for most of these traits in cultivated wheat are often moderate to high (see reviews by Virmani and Edwards, 1983; Pickett, 1993), suggesting that much progress can be made in improving the cross-pollinating ability of inbred parents derived from breeding populations. et al.Â. Fujimura Emasculation of wheat spikes is the first step in haploid production from the wide cross system, which is a laborious and time consuming procedure. Uyttewaal Ivashuta These site-specific lesions can be induced in a host cell either transiently or stably through the design, synthesis, and expression of artificial zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, or meganucleases (Curtin et al., 2012). According to Adugna et al. JD Grain development paralleled that observed previously for field-grown material in terms of grain weight, nitrogen, starch and protein. M. Zhang Constitutively expressed inverted repeats of the Ms45 promoter were used to induce transcriptional silencing of the Ms45 gene. TR PL Cultivated wheats are derived from an intricate history of three genomes, A, B, and D, present in both diploid and polyploid species. Siemeling Yuo In this study, tobacco plastids were engineered to express phaA, a Î²-ketothiolase from Acinetobacter sp. TR A Sato A good example of a transgenic construct-driven non-GM system is the recently deregulated proprietary process developed by DuPont Pioneer (Pioneer Hi-Bred International, 2011) for the production of maize hybrids. Yuan et al., 2012). Triticum timopheevii Zhuk.) CMS can arise both spontaneously and following mutagenesis, or be the result of interspecific, intraspecific, and intergeneric crosses (Kaul, 1988). . D Another limiting factor to commercial deployment is that, when blue-seeded male-sterile lines are crossed to normal varieties, the dominant blue-seeded male-sterile phenotype transmits to 20% of F1 progeny, requiring an additional seed selection step. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Miranda Genomic selection has been suggested to predict the phenotype for traits that are controlled by multiple genes with small effects. These approaches are being developed within both the public and private sectors and are finding application to both fertility control and heterosis breeding (Lusser et al., 2012; Waltz, 2012). The role of AP2-like transcription factors in sex determination, floral architecture, and ultimately fecundity implicates miR172 as a master floral development regulator. J K Longin Hawkes Y Frisch Jurcin Gifford and Bremner (1981 a,b) were able to obtain linear growth with cultured wheat kernels for up to 1 week provided the outer pericarp was removed. Four Japanese wheat varieties, three crossable and one non-crossable with Hordeum bulbosum, were pollinated with maize pollen of 5 genotypes. Collins . The concentration of abscisic acid measured in the spikelets of plants treated in this manner was close to that induced by water stress, which produced a similar level of pollen sterility. Thompson . The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Schnable Fu It should be noted that such issues do not limit the utility of this system for recurrent selection and wheat population improvement. The grain was the strongest nitrogen sink within the ear and, within the grain, starch and protein synthesis were independent of each other. Consequently, sophisticated solutions are required to develop genetically distinct groups with high heterotic combining ability for grain yield combined with high end-use quality (Longin et al., 2012). It also takes advantage of the poor transmissibility of addition chromosomes through the male germline, allowing only pollen containing ms1g mutant alleles to fertilize the homozygous recessive male sterile. In wheat crop manual emasculation of spikes is laborious and time consuming. M C Ma A B Protein synthesis proceeded at the same rate when heads were cultured in media containing amino acids regardless of the presence or absence of sucrose. Rye contains large anthers that are fully extruded from the floret (Fig. Gils Chhabra and Sethi, 1991; Murai et al., 2002; Yang, 2010). K S Brzeski AM RB M . JY QH . Wang The recent identification of disrupted untranslated region structures flanking wheat K-type CMS mitochondrial gene sequences (Choi et al., 2012) is suggestive of the corresponding wheat Rf gene sequences encoding PPR proteins. One maize inbred gave a significantly lower haploid embryo yield. BJ Stupar For example, reports have highlighted the failure of Chongqing PTGMS line C49S in the plains of Jiang Han (Chen et al., 2005). Sixty percent explants produced nodular calli on this medium within 30 days. Kuraya Hake Koga The maintainer transgene contains a dominant fertility restorer (Ms45) and a seed colour marker (SC), and is biologically contained to the maintainer line through the action of a pollen germination inhibitor (PGI). Yap AE . Heslop-Harrison These are sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins, which in some cases can directly bind CMS-ORFs, typically suppressing their transcription and translation (Gillman et al., 2007; Kazama et al., 2008; Uyttewaal et al., 2008). . (D) Sterile spikelet. RW KJ Kazama Methods for increasing natural hybridization of wheat have been developed to exploit heterosis. Langridge Genetically divergent groups are not expected to exist in wheat elite germplasm adapted to a particular target environment, because of the intensive exchange of elite lines. M F BJ The overall efficiency of OP was 5.5% higher than that of SC. Pickett Meguro J Further, empirical results of long-run and short-run revealed that area under grain crops, improved seed, fertilizer, and availability of water have a positive and significant There was also a significant difference in germination rate, ranging from 33.6% to 89.6%. Schrag KW . A Suzuki Meyer Kusterer Theory, The mode of inheritance of stature and of time of flowering in peas (, Pollination control technologies for hybrid breeding, Intein-mediated protein assembly in transgenic wheat: production of active barnase and acetolactate synthase from split genes, Chimeric RNA/DNA oligonuclelotide-based site specific modification of the tobacco acetolactate synthase gene, An overview of hybrid wheat production in South Africa and review of current worldwide wheat hybrid developments, The world wheat bookâa history of wheat breeding. For example, if a cross is made between plants with the genotype S1.1 Z1.2 as female and S1.2 Z1.3 as the pollen donor, 75% compatible pollen grains will be scored (as four pollen genotypes are produced, three compatible S1Z3, S2Z1, and S2Z3, and S1Z1, which is incompatible), whereas the reciprocal cross will show 50% of the pollen as compatible (two pollen genotypes: S1Z1, which is incompatible and S1Z2, which is compatible). Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, South Australia 5064. S Maan As each of these systems requires chemical spraying, fertility control is still subject to short biological windows for application and environmental factors such as wind and rain, which at times can compromise efficacy. Ideally, studies of nutritional and environmental factors on grain development, uncomplicated by interactions with other parts of the plant, would best be carried out by culturing the isolated caryopsis. Sidorenko Crow Haug-Collet Guo The most common procedure of manual emasculation is with the use of forceps or scissors. Fernando Engler VIII. . Durum, and five T. aestivum (bread wheat) varieties (Chinese Spring, Cadoux, Ghurka, amd Sentinel, Kite). M Schachschneider As an alternative to the catalytic conversion of proherbicides to phytotoxic compounds, Monsanto proposed several systems whereby either specific promoterâintron combinations, microRNA-mediated translational, or transcriptional repression could be used to specifically unprotect tapetal or microspore cells from the phytoxic effects of glyphosate (Fig. Hybrid wheats are seen to have higher agronomic potential than line varieties due to improved grain and straw productivity and yield stability under harsh environmental conditions (Longin et al., 2012). Driscoll B Kochevenko AE Thus, anthers have to be removed from a bisexual flower before they release pollen grains. Shikarpur, Sukkur and Shaheed Benazirabad, Sindh, Pakistan. X The antipodal cells, This study examined several possible means of improving the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x maize (Zea mays L.) method for haploid production in Australian hard white spring wheat genotypes. . AE FH Morgante DP miR172 is also implicated in maize sex determination, which occurs through abortion of female carpels in the tassel and arrest of male stamens in the ear (Chuck et al., 2007). Debrouwer AA Hirano Satoh Chen Absolute ethanol sterilization of the forceps and scissors between each plant helps to avoid cross- pollination. For prolonged culture of ears, the presence of the peduncular node was beneficial. . Reif The diversity among grass inflorescences is a result of variation in the identity and determinacy of floral meristems produced throughout inflorescence development (Fig. S A procedure for plant regeneration from callus culture of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. is described. Huang et al.Â. This marker, when used in combination with high-speed Sataki seed sorters, allows physical separation of transgenic SPT maintainer seed from non-transgenic male-sterile female inbred seed. Stitt Klimyuk Irish Flowering synchronization of wheat plants and pollinators was performed. Lea Allen Z All rights reserved. Nishikazekomugi). . R Â© 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. S EM C K Lin Linking the bar with herbicide resistance gene (HR) allows in-field positive selection of male-sterile individuals by herbicide spraying. mexicana ) were investigated for the production of haploid plants in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. JD CA Y R R. Akagi N For several of these traits, the genetic control appears to be simple, implying that single or few genes are responsible for the phenotype. Yang F Ogihara Liu Sano Heterosis can be explained genetically by: (i) the joint action of multiple loci with the favourable allele either partially or completely dominant (Bruce, 1910; Keeble and Pellew, 1910; Jones, 1917; Collins, 1921), (ii) overdominant gene action at many loci (East, 1936; Hull, 1945; Crow, 1948), and/or (iii) epistatic interactions between non-allelic genes (Richey, 1942; Schnell and Cockerham, 1992).
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