Brief examples of this are given but not in a detailed or manualized way. contributions of prominent early Muslim scholars to psychology and outlines the challenges faced by today's Muslims in adapting to the Western theories. This along with the reflection on insights from early Muslim scholars provides the outline of a spiritual paradigm that permits room for the incorporation of mainstream techniques that would be complementary and nonoppositional to the Islamic model. Following Badri was Awaad and Ali’s (2015) publication that conducted research on al-Balkhi’s explanation of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and found transcultural diagnostic consistencies across many centuries. Richards, P. S., & Bergin, A. E. This is helpful for understanding how Islamic concepts can be integrated into specific examples of therapeutic interventions. The exclusion criteria were papers in counseling, social work, and psychiatry. (2009). A., & Allen, G. E. K. (2015). Acceptance of Western psychological models as Islamic. Islamic Psychology as a foundation and basic concepts that became the initial foundation of psychotherapy with Islamic insight.Islam is a very great religion, which gives enlightenment to human beings in various aspects related to the universe, people and life. The concepts in the later work may be perplexing for the reader to adapt to Muslim clients, as the author appears to reference Christian texts more frequently than Islamic ones. Haque, A., & Keshavarzi, H. (2012). This was among the first of such literature providing an entire treatise demonstrating the sophistication of early understandings of clinical psychology dating back to the 9th century. Psychology of personality: Islamic perspectives. The subscale measuring beliefs yielded a low reliability (.66) but the behavioral practices subscale yielded a good reliability (.81). The Sahin Index of Islamic Moral Values was developed to assess the concept of akhlaq (moral disposition). Hamjah and Akhir (2014) identify three concepts, aqidah (beliefs), ibadah (worship), and akhlaq (character), which they assert are the three main components of Islamic teachings. Thus, cognitive restructuring can occur with theological suggestions designed to shift the pathological thinking of the patient. Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: Modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets. We embrace and build upon the work of classical scholars from the Islamic tradition and bring it into the context of modern … Lahore: Psyche Hope. Integrating indigenous healing methods in therapy: Muslim beliefs and practices. The authors collectively reviewed the list and selected 37 research articles and six books. Since then, we have seen extensive research, primarily from American and British sources, attempting to find a place for religiously and spiritually based psychotherapies within the larger theoretical and clinical psychological context (Pargament, 2007). Only three studies were identified for this theme (Table 5) as this is perhaps the least-developed area in the current research. While this may not indicate a strong alignment with earlier iterations of psychotherapy, several authors have shown how Islamic beliefs are in fact in line with the theoretical underpinnings of more recent psychological models such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Psychotherapy based on this model addresses identifying inner conflicts, reducing anxiety associated with the conflicts, strengthening ego functioning, and nurturing spiritual life by bringing awareness to the client’s inclinations and helping to reframe or restructure the cognitions around the behaviors (See Table 4). What is interesting however is that a lot of what the early scholars wrote was blended with Islamic philosophy and religious ideas. Through some translations, we are able to see the some of the work done by al-Ghazali, al-Balkhi, and al-Razi. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 12. The Journal of Muslim Mental Health is published by Michigan State University in collaboration with Michigan Publishing, a division of the University of Michigan Library. Earlier in 1979, Malik Badri wrote an influential book critiquing the use of Eurocentric theories with Muslims and encouraging Muslim psychologists to tap into their own indigenous concepts and traditions. Retrieved from. (Eds.). (2011). (1996). In a Christian history, the term “psychology” originally referred to a branch of pneumatology, the science of spiritual beings and substances (vande Kemp, 1982). Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Sandage, S. J. Fischer, E. H., & Turner, J. I. Some cultural beliefs may posit that primary theological principles cannot be subjected to empiricism, due to their divine nature. All three of these categories have unique benefits and challenges associated with them. Acceptance of Western psychological models as Islamic. The advantage of these approaches is that they have demonstrated an empirical basis for their utility in cross-cultural contexts (Thomas & Ashraf, 2011). While academic inquiries into the integration of the Islamic tradition within the psychotherapeutic process are still developing, there exists a wealth of literature that examines the use of religious and spiritual approaches in the general population. piritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. Recognition of the presence of an ethical obligation for mental health providers to become competent and knowledgeable in religious and spiritual aspects related to providing treatment (Gonsiorek, Richards, Pargament, & McMinn, 2009; Richards & Bergin, 2014). The effectiveness of Generalized Anxiety Disorder intervention through Islamic psychotherapy: The preliminary study. Ibn Sina (981 - 1037 CE) was the major influence upon the history of Islamic psychology, taking the ideas of the Greek philosophers and adapting them to fit Islamic doctrine. Bangladesh Journal of Psychology 7, 118-128. Rizvi, A. In other words Islam is an ideology (not just a religion) that is capable of answering every problematic question of mankind. The author concluded that this single-item is viable in large-scale research and community surveys. Gonsiorek, J. C., Richards, P. S., Pargament, K. I., & McMinn, M. R. (2009). Vasegh, S. (2009). Orientations to seeking professional help: Development and research utility of an attitude scale. Increased interest in the integration of spirituality and religion into therapy is reflected in the establishment of Division 36 (the Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality) within the American Psychological Association (Piedmont, 2013). Rippy and Newman (2008) developed the Perceived Religious Discrimination Scale through adaptation from the Race-Related Stressor Scale (Loo, Fairbank, Scurfield, Ruch, King, & Adams, 2001).
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